The history of homeopathy in the Russian Empire
until World War I, as compared with other European countries and the USA: similarities and discrepancies

by Alexander Kotok, M.D.
On-line version of the Ph.D. thesis improved and enlarged
due to a special grant of the Pierre Schmidt foundation.

Notes and references

Chapter Four: Homeopathy and clergy

1 Michael L. Ravitch, "The Romance of Russian Medicine", New-York, 1937, p. 34

2 The Nikon Chronicle — the all-Russian code of the 16th century, comprised many different sources concerned with the history of Russia. It was composed around 1539—42, and was named after Patriarch Nikon who owned one of the copies of the Chronicle. ("Sovetsky Entsiklopedichesky Slovar'" — SES — The Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary, Moscow, 1980, p. 899)

3 N. P. Zagoskin, "Vrachi i vrachebnoe delo v staroi Rossii" (Physicians and Medicine in Old Russia), Kazan, 1891, p. 21

4 P. V. Vlasov, "Srednevekovye monastyrskie bolnitsy" (The Medieval Hospitals at the Monasteries), Sovetskoe zdravoohranenie (Soviet Public Health), 1990, 11, p. 75

5 N. Novombergsky, "Vrachebnoe stroenie v dopetrovskoi Rusi" (The Medical Construction of Pre-Petrian Russia), Tomsk, 1907, p. 64

6 Levitsky, "Ocherki po istorii meditsiny v Rossii" (Essays on the History of Medicine in Russia), Meditsinskoe obozrenie (Medical Review), 1909, v. 71, p. 74 On the medical affairs of the Russian Orthodox church in the 16th and 17th centuries see also the chapter "Bolnitsy. Rol' pravoslavnoi tserkvi" (The Hospitals. The Role of the Orthodox Church) in: Mark Mirsky, "Ocherki istorii meditsiny v Rossii XVI — XVIII vv." (The Essays of the History of Medicine in Russia in the 16—18th centuries), Vladicaucasus, 1995, pp. 29—33 or the chapter with the same title in Mark Mirsky "Meditsina Rosii XVI—XIX vekov" (Medicine in Russia of the 16—19th centuries), Moscow, 1996, pp. 39-42, and a paper by V. Bushuev, "K voprosu o narodnom vrachevanii pri pravoslavnykh monastyriakh" (On the People Treatment at the Orthodox Monasteries) published in Vrach, 1901, 39, pp. 1185—1190 and 1901, 40, pp. 1219—1221

7 M. Mirsky, "Ocherki...", see note 6, p. 30

8 Kiev-Mogilianskaia Academia — established in 1632, Moscow Slavic-Greek-Latin — established in 1687, Petersburg and Kazan — both established in 1797.

9 Speakingmore generally, the spiritual academies were, that period, the only institutions of high education in Russia and Ukraine, which trained well-educated graduates for further state service in diplomacy, teaching, and other professions.

10 Anatoly Katsnelbogen, "Obshchestvennaia meditsina v Rossii (Vtoraia polovina XVIII — nachalo XIX veka)" (Public Medicine in Russia in the Second Half of the 18th and Beginning of the 19th Centuries), Volgograd, 1994, p. 16

11 The post of archiatre ("senior physician" in Greek) was introduced by Peter the Great in 1716. The archiatre was to head the Meditsinskaia Kantselariia, being virtually in charge for managing all medical matters in the country. The first Russian archiatre was a Scotchman Dr. Robert Erskine (1677—1718), who had been a physician-in-ordinary of Peter the Great since 1713. The last Russian archiatre was also a Scotchman, Dr. James Monsey (1700—1773) in 1762. On the history of archiatry in Russia see: M. Mirsky, "Meditsina...", see note 6, pp. 67—121

12 "Sbornik imperatorskogo Russkogo istoricheskogo obshchestva" (The Collection of the Imperial Historical Society), St. Petersburg, v. 43, p. 91, cit. M. Mirsky, "Ocherki...", see note 6, p. 95

13 M. Bulgakov, "Istoria Kievskoi Akademii" (History of the Kiev Academy), St. Petersburg, 1843, p. 194

14 Because of obvious overcrowding of the clerical estate by people who had neither places of work nor even hope to occupy positions anywhere, the State initiated a policy of "removing surpluses" from the estate. According to the level of education acquired, many people of all ages derived from clerical families were sent to serve the State in the army, as petty officials, etc. These measures were carried out uncompromisingly and often arbitrarily.

15 Anton V. Kartashev, "Ocherki po istorii russkoi tserkvi" (Essays on the History of the Russian Church), Moscow, 1997, vol. 2, p. 529

16 Ibid., p. 535

17 Ibid., p. 536

18 The chief Russian medical administrative body in 1763—1803, established by Catherine the Great instead of the Meditsinskaia Kantselariia.

19 A. Katsnelbogen, "Obshchestvennaia...", see note 10, pp. 15—16

20 John T. Alexander, "Catherine the Great and Public Health" Journal of the History of Medicine, vol. XXXVI, No 2, April 1981, pp. 196—197

21 Gregory L. Freeze, "The Parish Clergy in Nineteenth-Century Russia: Crisis, Reform, Counter-Reform", Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1983

22 Ibid., p. 119

23 Ibid., p. 127

24 Ibid., p. 127

25 Boris V. Titlianov, "Dukhovnaia shkola v Rossii v XIX stoletii" (The Spiritual School in Russia in the 19th Century), Vilna, 1909, p. 5

26 G. Freeze, "The Parish...", see note 21, p. 130

27 B. Titlianov, "Dukhovnaia...", see note 25, p. 104

28 See the chapter on "Homeopathy and zemstvo medicine".

29 Alexander Y. Polunov, "Tserkov', vlast' i obshchestvo v Rossii (1880-e — pervaia polovina 1890-yh godov)" (Church, Power and Society in Russia in the 1880s and the Beginning of the 1890s), Voprosy Istorii (Problems of History), 1997, 11, p. 125. For more detailed information on the period when Constantine Pobedonostsev headed the Holy Synod, see a monography of Alexander Polunov, "Pod vlastiu ober-prokurora. Gosudarstvo i tserkov' v epokhu Alexandra III" (Under the Power of the Chief-Procurator: The State and the Church in the Epoch of Alexander III), Moscow, 1996

30 A. Polunov, "Tserkov'...", see note 29, p. 126

31 E. M. Feoktistov, "Za kulisami politiki i literatury" (Behind the Scenes of Politic and Literature), Leningrad, 1929, p. 169, cit. ibid., p.126

32 "Narodnaia volia" (The People's Will) — the most large and significant revolutionary organization of the "narodnichestvo" stream which reflected the interests of the peasantry. It was mainly represented by "raznochintsy" (those who came from the miscellaneous ranks families). It was illegally established in St. Petersburg in 1879. In its program, it proclaimed democratic freedom, abolishing the tsarist autocracy transferring lands to peasants , and requesting the convocation of the Constituent Assembly. They assassinated the Tsar Alexander II on March 1, 1881 after seven unsuccessful attempts. In that same year arrests and internal crisis destroyed the organisation entirely. (SES, see note 2, p. 870)

33 The "black" clergy (regular or monks) in the Russian Orthodox church includes high-ranking clergymen like bishops, archbishops, metropolitans and patriarchs; in monasteries — novices, monks, celibate priests, fathers-superior and archimandrites. The "white" clergy includes priests, archpriests and so-called junior clergy like deacons, archdeacons, some church clerks and sextons. The "black" clergy remains celibate in contrast to the "white" clergy. The latter represents the major part of the Orthodox clergy.

34 A. Polunov, "Tserkov'...", see note 29, p. 127

35 Constantine Pobedonostsev, "Moskovsky sbornik" (The Moscow Collection), Moscow, 1896, p. 124 cit. A. Polunov, "Tserkov'...", see note 29, p. 131

36 See the story of Protasov's reforms mentioned above

37 A. Polunov, "Tserkov'...", see note 29, pp. 131—132. The fact of introducing medicine into curriculum of seminaries was reflected in the "Obzor deiatel'nosti vedomstva pravoslavnogo veroispovedaniia za vremia tsarstvovaniia imperatora Alexandra III" (Review of the Activity of the Department of the Orthodox Confession During the Period of the Rule of the Emperior Alexander III), St.-Petersburg, 1901. According to this source, the teaching of medicine had been introduced in 12 seminaries in 1881—1894, pp. 619—620. For the most recent sources on the history of the Russian Orthodox Church in the 19th century, see the books of S. V. Rimsky, "Russkaia pravoslavnaia tserkov' v XIX v." (The Russian Orthodox Church in the 19th Century), Rostov-on-Don, 1997 and of I. C. Smolin, "Istoriia russkoi tserkvi 1700—1917" (History of the Russian Church, 1700—1917), Moscow, 1997. It is interesting to remark that both authors bitterly criticize the Chief Procurators Tolstoy and Pobedonostsev for blindly neglecting the independence of the Church and imposing the dictate of the State to the Church. Both authors have considered Tolstoy and Pobedonostsev to be responsible for the deep crisis in which the Russian Church met the Era of Revolutions.

38 A. Engelhardt, "Dvenadtsat' pisem iz derevni" (Twelve Letters from the Village), Moscow, 1956, p. 54

39 A gradual transference of the rural clergy to state remuneration had nevertheless started as early as in 1893, but it was not completed because of financial problems and of changing government's priorities. For a detailed analysis of the economic position of the Russian rural clergy see John S. Curtiss, "Church and State in Russia", New York 1940, pp. 120—129. Although G. Freeze in his "The Parish..." (see note 21) did not bring detailed statistics on this subject, he cites many responses given by the parish priests in the questionnaires disseminated among them in March 1863, by the Special Commission. Those responses reflected clearly a great dissatisfaction of the common village clergymen with their conditions of life and service. [pp. 261—273]

40 G. Freeze, "The Parish...", see note 21, p. 177

41 Adele Lindenmayer, "Poverty is not a Vice. Charity, Society and the State in Imperial Russia", Princeton, 1996, p. 59

42 Victor A. Berdianskikh, "Prikhodskoe dukhovenstvo i razvitie kraevedeniia v XIX veke" (The Rural Clergy and the Development of Local Lore in the 19th century), Voprosy istorii, 1998, 10, p. 137

43 Ibid.

44 See the section "Physicians within zemstvo medicine" in the chapter "Homeopathy and zemstvo medicine"

45 "As soon as somebody in the village becomes ill, he goes to me immediately to receive some drug. Although I neither treat nor understand treatment, nevertheless they ask me for medicines. They say: 'You are an educated man, anyway you understand more than we do, give something'. I give castor oil, pepper or birchen vodka, tea — what I have at the moment. This helps". A. Engelhardt, "Dvenadtsat' pisem...", see note 38, p. 48

46 See, for example, the section "Physicians within zemstvo medicine" in the chapter "Homeopathy and zemstvo medicine"

47 Vrach, 1894, 2, p. 53

48 See the section "The Cholera years" in the chapter "Allopathy vs. Homeopathy", pp. 14—16

49 For more detailed information on him and his conversion to homeopathy see ibid.

50 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatia v Rossii", Moscow, 1882, p. 144. See also the chapter "Homeopathic facilities"

51 On his conversion to homeopathy, see the section "Conversion: a Russian Example" in the chapter "Allopathy vs. Homeopathy", pp. 62—64

52 The missionary activity had always been one of the main goals of the Russian Orthodox church. This activity was especially successful in Siberia in the second half of the 19th century, when the Archbishop Veniamin (1825—1892) himself was one the most successful missionaries. The Orthodox Missionary Society was headed by the Moscow Metropolitan. Its branches (mainly in Eastern Russia) were supported both by the state and by private charitable donations. See N. Smirnov, "Missionerskaia deiatel'nost' tserkvi. Vtoraia polovina XIX v. — 1917" (The Missionary Activity of the Church — the Second Half of the 19th Century up to 1917). In: A. Klibanov (ed.), "Russkoe pravoslavie: vehi istorii" (The Russian Orthodoxy: Its Historical Landmarks), Moscow, 1989, pp. 438—463. On Archbishop Veniamin Blagonravov see N. Talberg, "Istoriia Russkoi Tserkvi" (History of the Russian Church), Jordanville, N. Y., 1954, pp. 767—768

53 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1872, 1, pp. 26—27 and Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1904, 12, pp. 380—382. Also speaking of this experience, Bojanus refers to the Zhurnal Viatskogo komiteta pravoslavnogo missionerskogo obshchestva (Journal of the Viatka Committee of the Orthodox Missionary Society) – C. Bojanus "Gomeopatiia...", see note 50, p. 301, but without details like the year, issue, etc.

54 This evidence was the subject of a special pride of Russian physicians as it symbolized progress and independence of Russian medicine. So, A. Tauber, Prof. of Surgery at the Warsaw University (the Kingdom of Poland was then a part of the Russian Empire), in his speech before delegates of the 4th Congress of Russian Physicians in 1891, stressed that: "During the last 30 years all chairs of our medical faculties have been filled only by Russian professors and their Russian pupils" (Vrach, 1891, 3, p. 57). Another source, summarizing the development of Russian medicine (while speaking of the end of the 19th century), mentions that "Even if among the medical professors and physicians of Russia one can meet some foreign names, these belong, with a few exceptions, to completely assimilated persons who had graduated from the Russian universities" - E. A. Osipov, I. V. Popov, P. I. Kurkin "XII Mezhdunarodnyi s'ezd vrachei. Russkaia zemskaia meditsina" (The 12th International Congress of Physicians. Russian Zemstvo Medicine), Moscow, 1899, p. 57

55 See the section "The 1840—1860s — the establishment of homeopathy" in the chapter "Allopathy vs. Homeopathy", p. 127

56 Adele Lindenmayer, "Poverty...", see note 41, p. 17. There have been many available sources on Dr. Haas. See, for example, Heinz Müller-Dietz "Friedrich Joseph Haas als Arzt in Moskau. Biographische Skizzen", Berlin, 1980; Lev Kopelev "Der heilige Doktor Fjodor Petrovich. Die Geschichte d. Friedrich Joseph Haas, 1780—1853", Hamburg, 1984 or, the same book in Russian, "Sviatoi d-r Fedor Petrovich", St. Petersburg, 1993; Anton Hamm & Gerd Teschke "Ein deutsche Arzt als Heiliger in Moskau", Berlin-Bonn, 1983.

57 For the activity of Vasily Deriker in the St. Petersburg Society of Homeopathic Physicians, see the section "Societies" in the chapter "Homeopathic facilities".

58 Vasily Deriker, "O znahariah i vrachebnoi pomoshchi v derevniah. Sviashchennikam i gramotnym liudiam o domashnem lechenii v narode", St. Petersburg, 1860, 32 pp.

59 "Narodnaia beseda" (People Talking) — a bi-monthly journal, was published in St. Petersburg in 1858—67 (in 1858—61 under the title "Soldatskaia beseda" — Soldiers' Talking); since 1864, was edited by Vasily Deriker himself. The journal published popular articles on the subjects of religion, natural sciences, householding, etc.

60 "Severnaia pochta" (Northern Post) — an official weekly of the Ministry of Internal Affairs issued in 1862—1868 (SES, see note 2, p. 1195). See also the section "Homeopathy and the zemstvo-directed propaganda" in the chapter "Homeopathy and zemstvo medicine".

61 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 50, pp. 167—168

62 Almost all of Deriker's books have been more than once republished. I list here the titles of his books in translation into English with the date of the first publication: "On the sorcerers and medical help in villages. To the priests and all educated men about domestic treatment within the people" (1860); "What does cinchona do and whether it may be poison" (1861); "Preventive and curative medicines against the cattle-plaque"; "Stramonium and its use after being bitten by rabid animals" (1862); "Popular self-treatment book. Manual of diseases' treatment with simple domestic and homeopathic medicines for the rural priests, householders and educated soothsayers"; "Secret and non-secret medicines for hydrophobia and rabid dogs' bites" (1863); "Homeopathic treatment of cholera. Manual for physicians and laymen" (1865); "Collected popular medicines used by the healers in Russia"; "On methods for perserving the people's health. An opinion of a stranger suggested to the zemstvo meetings and boards" (co-authorship with N. Grech) (1866); "Homeopathic pharmacology with information on pathology and therapeutic indications". Vol. 1 (1867); Vol. 2—3 (1868); Vol. 4 (1869); "Preventive medicines for smallpox and its homeopathic treatment" (1871); "To adherents of homeopathy" (1874); "Simplified treatment of wounds. An open letter to the Red Cross" (1876). All these books were published in St. Petersburg.

63 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov , 1873, 4, pp. 125—128. Compare these persecutions 'suffered by feldsher Vassil'ev' with those brought in the section "The Zemstvo and homeopathy" in the chapter "Homeopathy and zemstvo medicine", suffered by feldsher E. Zhelominskaia.

64 Boris Veselovsky, "Istoriia zemstva za 40 let" ("Forty Years of History of Zemstvo"), St. Petersburg, 1909, Republished: Cambridge, 1973, vol. 1, pp. 327—328. On the Trubchev zemstvo see the section "The Zemstvo and homeopathy" in the chapter "Homeopathy and zemstvo medicine".

65 Henry E. Sigerist, "Medicine and Health in the Soviet Union", New York, 1947, p. 14

66 C. Bojanus, "Geschichte der Homöopathie in Rußland", Stuttgart, 1880, pp. 135—136

67 C. Bojanus, "Gomeopatiia...", see note 50, pp. 301—302

68 E. G. Lazarev, "Kratky ocherk razvitiia meditsiny v Belevskom uezde, 1865—1900 (A Short Essay on the Development of Medicine in the Belev District, 1865—1900) in: "Trudy VII s'ezda zemskih vrachei Tul'skoi gubernii" (The Transactions of the 7th Meeting of Zemstvo Physicians of the Tula Province), Tula, 1900, pp. 4—5

69 Vrach, 1886, 14, p. 264. "Vrach" itself became interested in this experience: "Could some colleagues of Belev or Glukhov inform us on details of this sad story?" (ibid.). To the great disappointment of "Vrach", there was no answer.

70 It is very regretful that I have not been able to consult myself specific archival documentation, but may only refer to this letter of Mr. Antonov. No other state archives could be successfully approached.

71 Gomeopatichesky vestnik, 1887, 4, pp. 341—342

72 Vrach-gomeopat, 1901, 2, pp. 96—110

73 Zhurnal St. Peterburgskogo Obshchestva vrachei-gomeopatov, 1873, 5, pp. 149—150

74 Vrach-gomeopat,1894, 10, p. 493

75 Vrach-gomeopat,1900, 3, p. 83 and periodical reports that were published in "Vrach-gomeopat" during 1899.

76 "Istorichesky ocherk sooruzhenia nadgrobnogo pamiatnika Samuilu Ganemanu, osnovateliu gomeopatii. Sostavil L. Brazol'" (Lev Brazol, 'Historical Essay on the Building of the Memorial of Samuel Hahnemann — the Founder of Homeopathy'), St. Petersburg, 1910, p. 11

77 "4-e Obshchee sobranie Kievskogo posledovatelei gomeopatii" (The 4th Meeting of the Kiev Society of Followers of Homeopathy), Kiev, 1893, p. 16

78 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 1, p. 26

79 See the section "Homeopathic societies" in the chapter "Homeopathic facilities".

80 Vrach, 1887, 35, p. 861

81 Vrach, 1885, 46, p. 777

82 "Sobranie pisem sviatitelia Feofana" (Collected Letters of St. Feofan), Moscow, 1901, p. 73. In translating these fragments of Feofan's letters, I have tried to keep as close as possible to his original style of writing.

83 Ibid., p. 84

84 The city-fortress of Cronstadtis situated 29-km westwards of St. Petersburg. Founded in 1703 by Peter the Great to shield St. Petersburg from the side of the Baltic Sea.

85 A. Lindenmayer, "Poverty...", see note 41, p. 170

86 "Neither any politician nor even the Tsar were at that time as popular [as Ioann was]. When Alexander III was dying in Crimea in 1894, he invited Ioann to his bedside." Walter Laguer, "Chornaia sotnia. Proiskhozhdenie russkogo fashizma" ("Black Hundred. The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia"), Moscow, 1994, pp. 90—91

87 A. Lindenmayer, "Poverty...", see note 41, pp. 172—173. "His [Ioann's] power was neither in his ideas nor in his writings but just in his personality". Walter Laguer "Chornaia...", see note 86, p. 91. In his last years of his life Ioann adopted the positions of right extremism. He justified the Kishinev pogrom in April 1903, later joined the Union of the Russian People ("Black Hundred") and was the first to sanctify its flags. For more information on him see: A. Semenov-Tian-Shansky, "Otets Ioann Kronshtadsky" (Father Ioann of Cronstadt), New York, 1955; I. Sursky, "Otets Ioann Kronshtadsky", vols. 1—2, Belgrade, 1938—1941; A. Selawry, "Johannes von Kronstadt, Staretz Russlands", Basel, 1981; N. Kizenko, "A Prodigal Saint: Ioann of Cronstadt and the Russian People, 1850—1988", Albany, 1999.

88 A. Lindenmayer, "Poverty...", see note 41, p. 289. Those clergymen who emigrated to France after the Bolshevik revolution established the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad which since then has maintained its own policy, independent from the Russia-located Russian Orthodox Church.

89 See discussion in "Kolokol" several pages later

90 "4-e Obshchee...", see note 77, pp. 10—12

91 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1909, 8, pp. 254—255

92 The curriculum of seminaries included the 6-year course divided into 3 forms ("otdeleniia"): 1. rhetoric 2. philosophy 3. hermeneutics. Together with spiritual disciplines also mathematics, physics, secular history, Hebrew, Greek and some modern languages were learned. The graduates of the full course at seminaries were qualified as priests ("sviashchenniki"), whilst those who finished only one or two forms were qualified as senior sacristans. Prior to be accepted in seminaries, the young men in the spiritual district schools had studied during 4 years Latin, Slavonic, Russian and Geography as well as some disciplines needed for the service as sacristans, like catechesis and parish recordkeeping. The graduates of these institutions who did not intend or afford to continue their education at seminaries, were qualified as young sacristans. (G. Freeze, "The Parish...", see note 21, pp. 120—121)

93 Vrach, 1888, 22, pp. 438—439

94 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1900, 7, pp. 191—197

95 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1903, 11, pp. 351—355

96 Ibid., p. 357

97 Vrach, 1897, 27, p. 780

98 Vrach-gomeopat, 1895, 3, p. 99

99 Ilia Sundi, "Istoricheskaia zapiska o vozniknovenii i deiatel'nosti Sankt-Peterburgskogo Obshchestva posledovatelei gomeopatii za vremia so 2-go maia 1881 po 2-e maia 1891 g." (Historical Writing on Emergence and Activity of the St. Petersburg Society of the Followers of Homeopathy During the Period from May 2, 1881 to May 2, 1891), St. Petersburg, 1892, pp. 40—41

100 Vrach-gomeopat, 1896, 1, pp. 25—41

101 Vrach-gomeopat, 1894, 11, pp. 512—514

102 This was the homeopathic book most popular among lay Russians, written by above mentioned St. Petersburg homeopath Pavel Solov'ev: "Domashny lechebnik" (The Domestic Self-Treatment Book). This book had been published in 1883, and was republished 4 times until 1917.

103 These were translations into Russian of books by Richard Hughes: A Manual of Pharmacodynamics (1881), Edward Ruddock: The Homeopathic Vade Mecum of Modern Medicine (1883) and Joseph Laurie: The Homeopathic Domestic Medicine (first Russian edition 1874, second edition 1881).

104 Vrach-gomeopat, see note 101, pp. 515—523

105 Ibid., p. 527. In the very same spirit was the above cited article "Opinion of A Rural Priest on the Benefit of Homeopathy" of Fedor Kibardin (see note 72) written. Priest Kibardin turned to homeopathy after he had buried within 5 years his wife, two daughters, his mother and aunt, although all had received allopathic treatment. While becoming entirely dissatisfied with allopathic medicine, he decided to turn to homeopathy. After describing many cases taken from his experience of successful treatment of the peasants with homeopathy, he concludes: "If I would have dealt with homeopathy timely, I would not have allowed death to take such a power [in my home]. I consider the death of my relatives as being God's punishment for my unbelief in homeopathy". Unlike priest Karolinsky, Kibardin used homeopathy also for cattle and found homeopathy efficient also in the treatment of animals. Although Kibardin did not propose to build a whole homeopathy-based system of public health like Karolinsky, he also appealed to the rural clergy calling for its active involvement in learning and using homeopathy.

106 Vrach, 1895, 24, p. 693

107 Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1903, 11, p. 375

108 Vrach, 1887, 33, p. 646

109 Kolokol (The Bell). According to its subheading, a "social, clerical, political and literary newspaper". Issued in St. Petersburg (1905—1916).

110 cit. Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1911, 5—6, p. 130

111 Ibid., pp. 131—133

112 Ibid., pp. 133—135

113 Ibid., pp. 135—138

114 Ibid., pp. 139—156

115 In his speech at the opening of the society, Fedorovsky hinted that legislative support of this new role of the church-parish communities would be needed. "Blagotvoritel'noe Khristoliubivoe Obshchestvo samopomoshchi v bolezniakh" (The Charitable Christ-Loving Society of Self-Help in Diseases), St. Petersburg, 1900, p. 6

116 Ibid.

117 Ibid., pp. 5—6

118 Ibid., pp. 10—11

119 Vrach-gomeopat, 1904, 8—9, pp. 295—316

120 Robert Jütte, "Samuel Hahnemanns Patientenschaft". In: Martin Dinges (Ed.): "Homöopathie. Patienten. Heilkundige. Institutionen. Von den Anfängen bis heute", Heidelberg, 1996, p. 36.

121 Ibid., p. 35. Unfortunately, there is no mention in the paper how many patients Hahnemann had had altogether during his Leipzigean practice. Nevertheless, Jütte notes that during that period Hahnemann had had some 10—15 consultations daily (ibid., p.28).

122 For examples see Robert Jütte, "Samuel....", see note 120, pp. 35—36

123 Robert Jütte, "Wo alles anfing: Deutschland" in: Martin Dinges (Ed.) "Weltgeschichte der Homöopathie. Länder. Schulen. Heilkundige", Munich, 1996, p. 42

124 Vrach-gomeopat, 1895, 11, p. 490

125 Ibid.

126 Eberhard Wolf, "...nichts weiter als eben einen unmittelbaren persönlichen Nutzen..." Zur Entstehung und Ausbreitung der homöopathische Laienbewegung", Jahrbuch des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin der Robert Bosch Stiftung, Stuttgart, 1985, vol. 4, p. 79

127 Michael Stolberg, "Die Homöopathie im Königreich Bayern", Medizin, Gesellschaft und Geschichte, v. 14, 1995, p. 180

128 Osamu Hattori, "Co-operation and Tensions between Homeopathic Lay Societies and Homeopathic Doctors: the Homeopathic Lay Movement in Württemberg during the Professionalisation of the Medical Profession, 1868—1921" in Martin Dinges (Ed.) "Patients in the History of Homeopathy", Sheffield, 2002, pp. 259-280.

129 Dörte Staudt, "[...] den Blick der Laien auf das Ganze gerichtet [...]'. Homöopathische Laienorganisationen am Ende des 19. und zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts". In: M. Dinges (Ed.), "Homöopathie...", see note 120, p. 95

130 Olivier B. Faure, "Eine zweite für Homöpathie". In: M. Dinges (Ed.): "Weltgeschichte...", see note 123, p. 52. Writing about the sympathy the French Catholic clergy had toward homeopathy, Robert Jütte (see note 120) refers to Paul Delaunay, "La Médecine et ľEglise", Paris, 1948.

131 Phillip A. Nicholls, "Homoeopathy and the Medical Profession", London, 1988, p. 135

132 "Report on Homeopathy in the Speeches on Irregular Practice", 1851, p. 15 cit. P. Nicholls, ibid., p. 114

133 Roy James Squires, "Marginality, Stigma and Conversation in the Context of Medical Knowledge, Professional Practices and Occupational Interests. A Case Study of Professional Homeopathy in Nineteenth Century Britain and the United States", Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Leeds, 1985, pp. 348-349

134 P. Nicholls, "Class, Status and Gender: Toward a Sociology of the Homoeopathic Patient in Nineteenth Century Britain". Paper delivered at the Second Stuttgart Conference on the History of Homeopathy, Stuttgart, 1999

135 Peter Morrell, "A History of Homeopathy in Britain". Paper published at

136 Julian Winston, "The Faces of Homoeopathy" Tawa, 1999, p. 562.

137 Harris L. Coulter, "Divided Legacy. A History of the Schism in Medical Thought" Vol. 3, Berkeley 1973, pp. 110—111

138 Martin Kaufman, "Homoeopathy in America: The Rise, Fall and Persistence of a Medical Heresy" in: Norman Gevitz (Ed.), "Other Healers, Unorthodox Medicine in America", Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, 1990, p. 101

139 "Transactions of the American Institute of Homeopathy", XXII, (1869), p. 388, cit. H. Coulter, "Divided...", see note 137, pp. 111—112

140 "Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Medical Convention, Held in the City of Philadelphia in May, 1847", p. 87, cit. H. Coulter, ibid., p. 194

141 Naomi Rogers, "An Alternative Path. The Making and Remaking of Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Philadelphia", Rutgers University Press, 1998, p. 49

142 H. Coulter, "Divided...", see note 137, p. 467.

143 A. P. Bogachuk, "Kent i Swedenborg" (Kent and Swedenborg), Vestnik gomeopaticheskoi meditsiny, 1995, 4, p. 19

144 Joseph M. Schmidt, "Homeopathy in the American West: its German Connections" in: Robert Jütte, Guenter B. Risse and John Woodward (Eds.) "Culture, Knowledge, and Healing. Historical Perspectives of Homoeopathic Medicine in Europe and North America", Sheffield, 1998, pp. 157

145 A. Bogachuk, "Kent i...", see note 143, p. 20. See also N. Rogers "An Alternative...", see note 141, p. 9

146 A. Bogachuk, "Kent i...", see note 143, p. 24

147 For more detailed explanation see E. Galen, "Kent's hidden links: the influence of Swedenborg on homeopathic philosophy of James Tyler Kent". Homeopathic Links, 1994, vol. 3, pp. 27—30 and pp. 37—38. See also the chapter "The Swedenborg connection" in the book by Julian Winston, "The Faces...", see note 136, pp. 166—167

148 J. Schmidt "Homeopathy...", see note 144, pp. 157—158

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